Tuesday, 13 April 2010

Learning, Memory and Nostalgia

Posted on 14:19 by neelam

In today's lecture we learnt about three different factors which are Learning, Memory and Nostalgia. The factors mentioned above reflect on a person's behaviour and attitude towards purchasing products or influence on them by the marketers. I will be explaining each sector in detail.


Solomon (2006) states that 'learning refers to a permanent change in behaviour, which comes with experience'. This impacts on individuals as when they see repeated adverts they tend to remember and learn what message the advert is trying to deliver across to the audience. By the message getting across to the audience successfully achieves the marketers aim of the advertisement purpose. Therefore, the aims of the product promotion is successfully achieved.
Learning links to memory as learning is seen as getting the knowledge out of what individuals tend to see, therefore this links to memory as the knowledge is stored in the memory. This relates to commercials as when individuals see adverts the aim of the advert is for its audience to remember and learn from it.

The two main theories used by psychologists regarding learning are:

1) Classical conditioning
2) Operant conditioning

Classical conditioning looks at people learning by associating themselves with certain things, for example certain object may remind them of happy events that took place in their life, therefore they will have a positive attitude towards that object. Classical conditioning is used by marketers as they create a certain image for their product or brand, which they associate their product with. Example is given below:

As shown above an expensive car such as a Lamborghini relates and is seen as expensive, therefore people will link this car to money.

Operant conditioning looks at people learning by reinforcement. In this condition individuals are affected as they are punished or rewarded for doing certain things they do, therefore they tend to realise the consequences of their actions whatever they tend to do. So if they do something that they get rewarded for they will do it again, however if they do something they get negative feedback on they will not do that again. For example, children tend to learn from this quickly as if they do something good their parents will reward them with a prize, however if they do something bad the child will get told off by his/her parent and will not repeat the same mistake.


Memory processes when individuals gain information, which they store in their memory therefore the information is kept in their memory so when they need to use it they can. Solomon (2006) states that 'memory involves a process of acquiring information and tends to store it over time, so it is available when needed'. This relates to marketing as when individuals look at a advertisement the tend to remember the product if it appeals to them, therefore it becomes stored in their memory. A memory process which it that individuals go through this is:

External inputs >>> Encoding information >>> Storage >>> Retrieval

This process overall shows that in order for individuals to retrieve information in the future they have to go through this process in order to freshen up their memory.
Another process that relates to memory helps individuals understand the link between the memory systems. The main factors in this process consist of the following:
(Taken from Solomon 2006)

Sensory Memory >>> Short-term Memory >>> Long-term Memory

The sensory memory in this process helps an individual understand visually and auditory. Then there is short and long term memory, this reflects on individuals who can store certain amounts of information, for example some people may be able to store certain information in their memory for longer than others.

Memory also relates to humans senses. The reason for this is because certain smells or type of food bring back memories for different individuals as they can relate to these specific things. For example, smells of perfume can bring old memories to people or a certain song which they can relate to.

Markerts tend to use catchy slogans and create an advert which will stay longer in the suadiences mind. For example:



Solomon (2006) states that this term means 'bitter, sweet emotion where the past is viewed with sadness and longing. This can impact on people in various ways, for example people can see an object which relates to their past and this can bring back old memories for them. This again relates to certain smells of perfumes that people can relate to from their past. Organisations tend to use this method within their advertising process as this helps them to gain customers attention as it impacts on the audiences emotions and makes people think about the past again, this encourages the customers to relate or gain that certain product/service again. Organisations tend to use this method with people who already have a history with that particular product. For example, old cars reintroduced, this makes people from the older generation remember cars from the olden days. Also, organisations tend to promote and advertise their products on television by using certain themes or songs which takes the audience back into the past.

1 comment:

  1. Good on theory input so far but I think you can make much more of nostalgia. Read the article on warc.com which refers to the effect of nostalgia in ads and then test it out on your mum....